Vapor 2 — What to do after 'Hello World' Example

I was using Javascript and wasn’t happy with the language. Even if it has a lot of features and cool things, it’s not type safe. This doesn’t feel right for me. In fact, I lost myself in the code a couple of months ago while trying to understand one undefined error.

Javascript is a big world and there are millions of ways to do one thing. So, I decided to give Swift a shot for server-side development. I tried Kitura at first. Because naming was similar with Express.js and Koa.js. After some time, I realized naming is not the issue at that moment. While all frameworks getting better, Kitura has a lot of missing features even now. But I learned a lot of things while working with Kitura, though. Then, I decided to go with Vapor. It’s more complete and it looks like it’s ready for production.

In this article, I speak about creating a backend API for a small and beautiful iOS game called Kaucuk. As an iOS developer with a small amount of backend experience, I’ll try to focus on getting things ready for production. I won’t focus on the web frontend side and also the basics of Vapor. You can check out the documentation for basics.

Here we go

There are some examples, tutorials for setting up and creating an endpoint for Hello, World!” message. Most of the time I lose myself after this point. Don’t know what to do and what to research. Because from this point it starts to be specific for a use case. But there are a number of things that you should know/learn. I’ll focus on them one by one with explaining what we did.

Database Preparation

We decided to go for MongoDB. Vapor has Mongo provider to handle Mongo setup easily. We’ll setup MongoDB and connect to our API.

Install MongoDB on Mac with brew install mongodb command and start it with brew services start mongodb. When it’s completed, connect to admin board with mongo admin. Then, create user with db.createUser({ user: "admin", pwd: "password", roles: ["root"] }) command and exit from the admin board with Ctrl+C. Run mongod command in terminal. This will run the database on your local. Now, we need to put these configurations to Config folder in our Vapor app. I’ll explain what is Config and why we did this later. Create a new file named mongo.json under the Config folder and put the following JSON in there. (This config is only for development)

  "url": "mongodb://admin:password@"

Our database is ready. Let’s take a look at our models.


Models are pretty straightforward. Import FluentProvider and conform to Model protocol. Add Storage as property. It’ll handle all id and exists thingies in the model. Only tweak in here for me to conforming JSONRepresentable protocol and implementing the custom JSON responses for the model. Because, if you want to return id in the response, you have to use it. Also sometimes you just want a custom JSON response to fit your client’s style.

import Vapor
import Fluent
import FluentProvider
import Foundation

final class User: Model {
  let storage = Storage()
  var name: String

  var exists: Bool = false

  init(name: String) { = name

  init(row: Row) throws {
    name = try row.get("name")

  func makeRow() throws -> Row {
    var row = Row()
    try row.set("name", name)
    return row

extension User: JSONRepresentable {
  func makeJSON() throws -> JSON {
    var json = JSON()
    try json.set("id", id?.string)
    try json.set("name", name)
    return json

extension User: Timestampable { }
extension User: Preparation {
  static func prepare(_ database: Database) throws {
    try database.create(self) { builder in

  static func revert(_ database: Database) throws {
    try database.delete(self)


This is where the all logic goes in. Controller basically manages request and prepares response properly. While preparing the response, we can send a query to the database, a network request to other system or just do logical operations. But we should be careful to not have massive controllers. Let’s take a look at the basic usage.

final class UserController {
  func all(request: Request) throws -> ResponseRepresentable {
    let allUsers = try User.all()
    return try allUsers.makeJSON()

First, we get all users. It uses Fluent’s all() method. It returns all users as User array. Then we try to make it JSON and return it. We’re going to connect this function to /all endpoint like following:

let userController = UserController()
drop.get("all", handler: userController.all)

This is the easiest endpoint. Let’s take a look at more advanced one. In Kaucuk, we decided to keep our users’ highest scores only. In that case, our endpoint should update the user and return it back. We have a PATCH request to update one part of the user model. We search our user by identifier, update its score and save it back to database.

func updateScore(request: Request) throws -> ResponseRepresentable {
  let id = try
  guard let json = request.json,
        let score = json["score"]?.int else {
    throw Abort(.badRequest)

  guard let user = try User.find(id) else {
    throw Abort(.notFound)
  let newUser = user
  do {
    if score > newUser.score {
      newUser.score = score
      return try newUser.makeJSON()
  } catch {
    return Response(status: .failedDependency)

  do {
    return try newUser.makeJSON()
  } catch {
    return Response(status: .internalServerError)

We can connect this controller method to endpoint like following:

let userController = UserController()
users.patch("", String.parameter, "score", handler: userController.updateScore)

ResourceRepresentable Protocol

I should mention ResourceRepresentable protocol in here. As the name explains it makes the controller representable and easily usable without adding every endpoint one by one to Droplet. It automatically integrates controller methods to router.

final class UserController {
  func index(_ req: Request) throws -> ResponseRepresentable {
    return try User.all().makeJSON()

  func show(_ req: Request) -> ResponseRepresentable {
    let user = try
    return user
extension UserController: ResourceRepresentable {
  func makeResource() -> Resource<User> {
    return Resource(
      index: index,
      show: show

UserController has two methods as an example. index method returns all users and show returns the user you want. Instead of connecting these methods to endpoints one by one like this

let users = UserController()
drop.get("users", handler: users.index)
drop.get("users", User.self, handler:

using ResourceRepresentable protocol, we can add our controller methods to the endpoints easily by addingcontroller as a resource only.

let users = UserController()
drop.resource("users", users)

You can find more details here.

Routing with collections

Everything looks nice for a small project with a few APIs. But when your app is getting bigger, you’ll need more APIs and want to group them and route them accordingly. This is what collections for. In Kaucuk, we have operations on a score, like getting top 10 scores, fetching user position in highest scores, etc.. But we don’t have score model and we don’t want to add everything to UserController. So, we decided to create another controller and put score logic in there. Everything in that controller is under /scores URL path. Therefore, we have a custom RouteCollection.

final class ScoreCollection: RouteCollection {
  func build(_ builder: RouteBuilder) throws {
    let scores = builder.grouped("scores")
    let scoreController = ScoreController()
    scores.get("top", handler: scoreController.top10)
    scores.get("position", String.parameter, handler: scoreController.position)

grouped method in line 3 returns configured RouteBuilder object and it allows us to make different groups consist of other groups. This can lead more things. For example, if you prefer to handle versioning with URL paths, creating the collection for API versions makes it easy to handle. Just create a collection for version. If you want to increase API version with support of old version, create another one, create new or use existing endpoints and add them to it. Bind these two collections to your Droplet. It’s done, your API will be backward compatible.

Let’s get back to our example. Binding collection to Droplet is really easy.

let scoreCollection = ScoreCollection()
try drop.collection(scoreCollection)

So far, we have pretty much everything we need. We have database setup, CRUD operations on the database, working endpoints and routing. For now, this should work without any problem. But it’s not production ready. Production ready code needs some usage constraints, security layers, production configuration of underlying systems (for us it's the database) and so on. Now, let’s start with adding extra layers to our endpoints with middleware.


Middleware is a place where every request and response passes through. When they pass, we can manipulate almost everything and let them pass or reject. When a client makes a request, it comes to middleware first, before going into any logical or database operations. Also, depending on the middleware implementation, responses go to the middleware after underlying operations. OK, good. But what are the cases that we can use? For example, our backend server works with only JSON request and responses. We don’t support XML or any other format. So before letting the request to get in, we have to select JSON contents only and reject all unsupported formats beforehand. We can tell our client that we’re working only with JSON using Content-Type header. If the client request’s content is different from JSON, we’ll reject it. How does that look in the code?

final class RequestVerificationMiddleware: Middleware {
  func respond(to request: Request, chainingTo next: Responder) throws -> Response {
    if let contentType = request.headers["Content-Type"],
       contentType != "application/json" {
      throw Abort(.badRequest,
                  reason: "Server only accepts JSON content")
    return try next.respond(to: request)

RequestVerificationMiddleware, verifies all requests come to our server. If the request has Content-Type header it has to be application/json. If it passes the check, we send it to the next Responder object. If there is another middleware, the request will go to that one. Otherwise, it’ll directly go to the underlying operations. We can manipulate the request however we want. For example, we can forbid all DELETE operations without an Authentication header.

Middleware can manipulate also the response. Middleware protocol’s only method (respond) returns Response object. For example, we can put information headers to the response or restructure the response to handle only for one thing.

We created our custom middleware above. We need to add it to our Config object with one line.

config.addConfigurable(middleware: RequestVerificationMiddleware.init,
                       name: "request-verification")

After that, we need to add the middleware’s name to the droplet.json file. I’ll explain this file and Config object in a moment.

Application Configuration

This is the place where Vapor handles application’s all configurations. All configurations for Droplet (our application) are managed by Config object and JSON files. All Droplet methods are constants. We cannot change properties of Droplet after initialization. That’s why we have Config object. Config object basically includes our middlewares, preparations for models and providers. Configuration generally takes two steps. First, we add a configuration to Config object and then to JSON file. Let’s take a look one by one.

We’ll start with our database. We set up our MongoDB at the beginning of the post but we didn’t configure our app to use this database. We have MongoProvider as community package. It allows us to use Mongo in our Vapor project. Adding it to the Config requires only one line after importing MongoProvider.

let config = try Config()
try config.addProvider(MongoProvider.Provider.self)

Now, MongoProvider works with mongo driver. (If you are using same, don’t forget to create mongo.json as I mentioned at the beginning. Otherwise, app will crash) We then added this driver to fluent.json file. fluent.json file allows us to configure Fluent package to have a better communication with the database. Also, we are using ids in a type of UUID in the database. There are more options available in fluent.json that we’re not using like pagination for the database. Here is our simple fluent.json file.

  "idType": "uuid",
  "driver": "mongo"

It’s time to talk about the middleware integration to our droplet.json file that I mentioned above. Whenever we add a new middleware, we have to add its name to our droplet.json file. This file and Config object work together to configure our application. This approach allows us to create different configurations for development, testing, and production. In Kaucuk, we created folders for each of these configurations under Config folder in the project and put different droplet.json files under them. But how Vapor knows where to look when we have multiple files with the same name? Vapor has a priority for Config files. It takes a look at CLI (Command Line Interface) first. Then, it’ll take a look at the secrets folder. If it cannot find necessary files, it’ll take a look at our environment configuration folders. If the files don’t exist, it’ll take a look at the main Config directory. Thanks to Vapor’s this approach, we achieved different middleware order, different logging and different database setup for each configuration. But what is there in this file? Here is our droplet.json for development configuration.

  "server": "engine",
  "client": "engine",
  "console": "terminal",
  "log": "dev-console",
  "hash": "dev-crypto",
  "cipher": "dev-crypto",
  "middleware": [

Order of the middlewares in the JSON array represents actual running order. As you can see, we have a middleware for logs named dev-console. In this logging, we pretty much log everything in a good format. In the equivalent file for production config, of course, we don’t log everything.

This configuration approach brings a lot of advantages. If you are an iOS developer and has no experiences on the backend development, you won’t lose your mind while researching how to configure your project for different environments. Vapor is guiding us through to an easy and understandable path.


Until now, we have covered database setup, the logic of the app, routing, middleware and application configuration. We should be ready for deploying our app for production. Remaining things are set up a database on the cloud and deploying our application to cloud. Currently, we’re using mLab in Kaucuk as a Mongo database and Heroku for deploying our application. You can benefit from this post for setting up mLab and Heroku for your backend API.


  • If you want to deploy your app to AWS, check this post out. You can also learn other things like setting up systemd which is a tool to restart your app when it crashes.
  • If you want to use Docker and deploy wherever you want you can check this post out for setting up Docker for your server-side Swift app.
  • If you want to use DigitalOcean and MySQL, check this post out to learn all setting up the process.
  • Also, Amazon has a Quick Start Reference for setting up Swift Web applications on the AWS cloud which you can access from here.
Long Form Last Updated: Jan 22, 2022